Landscape architecture department
The opening of this web page in the second half of the 21st century in Serbia marks the beginning of discussing the 3D vision and city construction place and role of the landscape architecture, as a scientific professional discipline that used to be formed and developed through social-cultural, architectural-urban history of various epochs and civilizations. For a long time, these facts have been continuously shaping this program-based landscape-architectural-urbanistic institute of scientific – professional work, as well as a special discourse with its subgroups, already having direct influence on their identity and on a qualitative different analysis of landscape architecture specificities, that actually defines the subject and goal of its activities in the form of studying, planning, design and building 3D structure, objects and artifacts of landscape architecture, culture, construction, art and cultural-park heritage.
This unique, new scientific and prospectful 3D concept, oriented toward landscape architecture mission, and its precisely defined avant-garde approach and the program for exploring its physical (3D) structures, objects and artifacts, is the only accredited concept realized through the academic subject Landscape Architecture at a scientific-research organization of higher education at the University UNION - NIKOLA TESLA, Department of Architecture and Urbanism, Belgrade, 62-64 Cara Dusana Street.
Actually, it is about the contemporary need to acquire Bachelor, Master and PhD skills, to promote creative and artistic aspirations and achievements in the field of landscape architecture through gathering information and learning about development of the original garden or park architecture, then modern and sustainable 3D landscape architecture, culture, art and cultural – park heritage.
Regarding the above mentioned facts, the understanding of basic knowledge needed to spot the difference between the previous virtual, speculative, outdated and popular 2D or quasi-terminology is promoted together with the awareness of architectural-urbanistic and landscape –architectural 3D terminology that is inevitable for understanding eco-urban reciprocity and implementation of the same detail-level in the process of urban design of high, law and landscape built physical (3D) structures. Also, when it comes to urban residence, it is all closely related to recognizing and understanding essential differences between the planned, designed and built landscape-urban structures, artifacts and properties where urban processes are dominant, and natural resources where natural processes are dominant, especially today when it is known that environmental habitat lacks 'pure' natural properties where natural resources are prevailing.
This modern scientific-professional institute, methods and study discourse as well as the articulation of landscape-architecture, culture, art and cultural-park heritage, reaching the end of Modern and somewhat ossified Post-modern architecture, that is – after representative effects and achievements during the baroque, classicist and eclectic phase, a modern 3D education in that field is being promoted and implemented at the University UNION NIKOLA TESLA in Belgrade.
In comparison to other institutions of higher education in Serbia and its surroundings, as well as their outdated and unsustainable 2D educational programs in the field of landscape-architecture and eco-urban design, the new 3D skills and knowledge are being acquired – the knowledge of the planned, designed, built, artistically shaped, sophistically cultivated and designed landscape-urban structures and their artistic, architectural and recognizable landscape-architectural-urbanistic entities, objects, artifacts and forms as a new and sustainable 3D system that is a logical connection to landscape systems within direct urban environments.
This is the moment of implementing and promoting the skills and knowledge that would be useful for both current and future generations of the students of this avant-garde University. They are provided with the possibility to distinguish landscape-urban objects and artifacts from the processes that are planned, designed, built, unlike natural resources and processes that are never planned, designed or built, being a part of natural (God) creation. Also, there is an evident need to have such planning and zoning documents that respect the same detail level and eco-reciprocity between high, low and landscape built structures. The planned, designed and built objects of landscape architecture are not free, undeveloped areas or 2D surfaces, but the pivots of sustainable urban-environmental continuity.
Therefore, in comparison to current unsustainable, quasi-professional and virtual 2D approach, treatment, interpretation and implementation of virtual or 2D antisystem of the so-called green spaces and greenery, unsustainable implementation of pseudo-urban, virtual and speculative 2D 'patents' and 2D terminology, and after too many mistakes made during the 20th and 21st century in relation to city planning through virtual or 2D images and visions of urban plans without sustainable detail level and eco-reciprocity between high, low and landscape built structures, as well as the consequential multiplication of negative ecological heritage, we were finally led to a real 'turning point', in the first decade of the 21st century.
Several decades of research have convinced the enthusiastic researchers in the validity of scientific hypothesis, analyses and synthesis. Therefore, together with the author of this text, they designed and created a 3D vision of this educational institution and discourse. Now, it is possible to promote and implement the only real, redesigned, sustainable, motivational and avant-garde 3D approach and discourse in the study of landscape architecture. Certainly, it is different from out-dated and unsustainable higher-education 2D programs and such (2D) educational versions at various faculties of architecture and urbanism as well as other faculties where the study of landscape architecture is included in the guise of horticulture. The mentioned facts have proved the sustainable arguments of the foreword of this study. Also, other explanations and statements follow and are included in the scientific-research papers of this web site.
Thus, the outdated 2D programs and education cannot be compared to this integrative and modern 3D concept and program of the landscape architecture, because the previous unsustainable 2D doctrines, hidden in the study of horticulture within the landscape architecture at various faculties in Belgrade, Novi Sad, Nis, Kragujevac as well as the faculties of architecture and urbanism during the 20th and 21st century, have been providing one-dimensional horticulturization and ecologization of the landscape architecture as well as its quasi-scientific stultifying through speculative 2D patents and unsustainable 2D terminology, where 2D is equal to or the same as 3D and vice versa.
This is how '2D-isms', slogans and 'patents' of urban and spatial design, as well as a quasi-scientific and meta-language and metaphorical meanings and interpretations of conceptual 3D landscape-architectural forms and familiar structures and artifacts of parks, promenades, alleys, gardens and other objects of landscape architecture, is defined and reduced to 2D virtual and so-called green space. In other words, they are presented as equal to speculative or temporary 2D voids that never have a physical 3D building personality, which leads to their purpose-change, which means that invasion of capital hegemony, powerful investors and dominant corporatocratic urbanism as well as corrupted individuals makes them the most appropriate, attractive and exclusive construction lots (sites) for pseudo-urbanization ( Shopping mall Usce in New Belgrade and various other shopping malls in Belgrade and its surroundings.
This is about 2D green space that is not and cannot be creative 3D objects, structures and artifacts of parks and other landscape-built physical units of landscape architecture. They neither possess their own architectural-urban, creative and artistic identity, nor their own 3D personality, which leads to the conclusion that they do not have architectural-urbanistic legality.
Such forms of 2D speculations in realtion to urban planning documents mislead the users or urban-environmental residence, providing them with incorrect information that the so-called green space will become the place meant for parks, alleys, gardens, promenades or other 3D landscape-urban structures, objects or artifacts.
That is why the 2D landscape architects use their knowledge of horticulture in order to 'arrange' these areas in accordance with the principles of horticulture planting plan and the so-called greening without any form of creativity. This is the key to their temporality and impermanence, that is – 3D undeveloped structures. It leads to a speculative interpretation and redesigned purpose seen as the so-called free space or 2D surface for the future pseudo-urbanization. This proves that 2D landscape architects, designers and urbanists found themselves trapped in their own unsustainable 2D patent (2D = 3D and vice versa). They did it either on purpose, led by some interests, or unwillingly because of being misled.
In this case, the only bridge between an unsustainable 2D green surface and 3D sustainable park structure is a speculative interest when needed. Then, there is a new result, since 2D green space is not a 3D park structure, but a free and undeveloped space. It is obvious that a 2D green space, the free and undeveloped surface (read: described in and urban-planning document as a non-existing park or other 3D structure of landscape architecture) is gradually becoming an exclusive place for pseudo-urbanization, through the process of purpose change and 2D terminology.
So, on the basis of such unsustainable 2D education, everybody is aware of an extended and varying metaphor of 'green space'. Also, 2D landscape architectures, urbanists and designers apply the horticulture knowledge of the landscape architecture since they ostensibly know how to design a so-called green space - unsustainable 2D space. When we say ochre, brown or red surface, nobody knows what an extensible metaphor of any of the listed 2D units is, and nobody knows how to design any of them in the form of a physical 3D structure.
Such unsustainable 2D quasi-knowledge of the landscape structures and artifacts are not applicable to high and low –built structures, because no one knows what the extensible metaphor of 2D construction or traffic area is, which means that not even 2D or 3D designers know how to design them, in the same way as these designers apply their quasi-professional knowledge in order to design 2D of the so-called green space making it a 3D physical structure. It clearly shows that, as long as there is not a single design plan for 3D high, low and landscape structures and artifacts, there cannot be a project for any of them. It means that where there is no project for any of the known or given landscape, high or low built physical structures, then there is no construction of 3D objects.
Never have the 3D constructors designed and built the so-called green space, some green-colored or unpainted plain surface, because they regard such surface to have either horizontal or vertical function. Therefore, the architectural-urbanistic history did not have distinguished constructors and builders of 'green space', but did have famous designers and constructors of physical structures of parks, gardens, subgardens, squares and so on.
It is not unknown that the proportions of 3D structures define the constructive points and plain surface and that the space is divided and the space border is a plain. It implies that the surface in conjunction with a constructive system is meant to form a specific or defined in construction terms a physical (3D) composition or a high, low and landscape built structure or artifact, as well as a relevant measurement unit for physical parts or units with or without a constructive system.
As for the space surfaces, they are distinguished by colors and measurability. Among other things, painted and unpainted surfaces are present in various architectural-urbanistic complexes or physical structures in and out of settlements. However, in terms of measurability, the surfaces can be applied in an exact and specific way to quantifying the proportions of the objects' parts or their physical units.
In that way, 2D surfaces are not to be planned, designed or built because they are not 3D structures. Or in other words, 3D landscape – architectural project for parks, gardens, squares, promenades, microambients and so on, cannot be quasi-scientifically seen as 2D horticulture planting plan and the so-called greening. In the same way, 2D horticulture planting plan of vegetative elements and the so-called greening offering everything and nothing at all, cannot be regarded as the Master plan for any 3D object of landscape architecture.
That very 2D quasi-professional possibility of building the landscape architecture structures on the basis of 2D horticulture planting plan of the vegetative elements and the so-called greening, that is, the so-called projects offering everything and nothing, is unsustainably regulated in the actual 2D legal regulations of Serbia. In accordance with the earlier and current absurd Law on planning and construction (72/2009), it is not necessary to make any preliminary or master projects for the landscape architecture structures.
In relation to 2D quasi-scientific terminology, the same Law does not recognize 3D structures, objects or artifacts of the landscape architecture, culture or cultural-park heritage, in spite of their obvious presence in the built environment. Since that same Law applies 3D terminology in case of high and low built structures, these structures are recognizable and present. Thus, the whole situation led to creating quasi-scientific and unsustainable 2D titles for urban, design and construction licenses of the Chamber of Engineers of Serbia.
What is landscape (park or garden) architecture?
It is a planning, design, construction, city-construction, artistic and eco-urban discipline. Its landscape-architectural or landscape-urban or park-construction or park-garden discipline is based on scientific, theoretical, pragmatic and sustainable 3D planning and construction principles. Various historical epochs and civilizations and their architectural-urban phases of rise, fall and development, provide the insight into landscape architecture and its antique, medieval, Renaissance, baroque, modern and postmodern achievements, aspirations, efforts and accomplishments, as well as social-cultural and traditional landscape-architectural, spatial-urban and ecologically sustainable processes of its development.
Its discipline and artifacts have participated in the process of design, construction and cultivation of urban environmental residence as well as in the process of protecting and preserving environmental habitat and landscape-scenery units and values.
Although this context reveals that landscape-architecture, culture, art and culture-park heritage has been primordially tied to architectural-urban history, ever since the antique period. Therefore, landscape architecture was created when people were not even aware of ecology problems, and when ecology did not even exist as a scientific discipline.
It means that landscape architecture was created by completely different human needs and motivation. Therefore, it was created as a city-construction discipline and is much older than ecology, which does not mean that its ecology dimension is disputable today. On the contrary, it is not; but its landscape–urban structures do not have only one one-sided ecological role and significance within city-construction. In other words – the landscape architecture is not the ecology discipline, since ecology did not appear until the second half of the 19th century. So, it could be said that the landscape architecture somehow contributed to ecology beginnings; ecology is younger discipline and less related to beneficial effects, spiritual-creative, eco-creative and environmental influence of urban-landscape structures, objects or artifacts within urban-environmental residence.
What is the landscape architecture function and activity?
Before defining the activity and objectives of the landscape architecture, it should be said that the earlier dominance of quasi-scientific 2D theories, practice, legal regulations and terminology, previous higher-education institutions have provided quasi-scientific skills and knowledge about virtual and unsustainable 2D green space, 2D green-stained antisystem of the so-called green and free surface or a 2D antisystem of the so-called greenery, then 2D antisystem of the so-called open or undeveloped surface or space. It led to unsustainable urban-environmental discontinuity, deregulation, degradation and deconstruction of the inherited or newly created urban substance.
In that way, the virtual but completely false and unreal image as well as unfounded study and interpretation of the original basis of scientific activity and objectives of the landscape architecture was created. Such distorted and unsustainable ideas about landscape architecture, creative works, culture, art and culture-park heritage under the guise of horticulture have been offered to the young for decades. That is why they do not know that the landscape architecture does not deal with planning, design, studying and preserving 2D so-called greenery systems, the so-called green space, the so-called city greening, and so on.
This explains why '2D educated generations' have been writing virtual treatise about 2D so–called greenery and green space, keeping them 'raised', which leads to the question 'when did they drop?' Also, due to acquiring such 2D knowledge and skills during the educational university years at various Serbian faculties in the second half of the 20th and early 21st century, the peak of their high-education knowledge is the suppression of the third dimension, or in other words – unsustainable learning and interpretation implying that 3D park structure or some other structure or artifact of the landscape architecture is described as 2D green space. It means that there is no difference between 2D and 3D, which led to the conclusion saying that 'green space' is the surface where the plants grow. Knowing such 2D 'green discovery' we can ask what is about the sidewalks downtown Sarajevo – they were painted in green oil in 2008? Is this another example of 2D 'green space' although there is not a single plant there?
Also, all other known structures of landscape architecture use the guise of horticulture in order to be defined as 2D so-called green space, which is obvious in the 'Green Regulation of Belgrade' passed in 2003, the book 'The Greenery of Belgrade', published in 2006, the textbook 'Landscape Architecture – planning and design', published in 2003, and other similar publications with 2D terminology that are harmful and detrimental for the theory of landscape architecture as well as for planning, design, construction and preservation of 3D structures and artifacts of landscape architecture construction, creative works, culture, art and culture-park heritage. Such synthesized 2D education initiated a law regulation in relation to unsustainable 2D or quasi terminology, and in accordance with previous laws and current Law on planning and construction parks and other 3D landscape architecture structures, no preliminary or master plan is needed, and the process of construction is based only on horticulture design without planning or construction creativity.
Actually, this is clear evidence that the so-called 2D landscape architects as well as other 2D profile designers and urban planners do not recognize the need for 3D structures and artifacts of the landscape architecture construction, culture, art and culture-park heritage, but only applies high and low built 3D structures, objects and artifacts and unsustainable 2D so-called green space – and in order to carry out such green space plan only one horticulture plan or draft of planting and greening is needed.
This illustration of devastating facts and quasi-knowledge and earlier 2D landscape architecture marginalization and its landscape-architectural achievements, systems and artifacts under the guise of horticulture, reveals that these problems and piled negative ecology heritage cannot be solved by applying the same methods and approaches that had created them. Therefore, it was neccessary for the professional and scientific staff to gather around the author of this text, at the First Institutte of Landscape-architectural-urbanistic construction of Serbia (PIPAUGS), in order to finally initiate and implement the redefined and the only sustainable 3D vision and academic education, the one that had already been implemented at the University UNION NIKOLA TESLA and led to the turning point and transformation in that field. Thus, there is a new chance for 3D educational vision meant to realize scientific-professional goals and accomplishments.
This clearly shows that the landscape architecture deals with the already realized and promoted concept of planning, designing, construction, preservence, restoration, protection, revitalization, researching, studying the structures, objects and artifacts, just like it was created before and during the time of Le Notre.
Perceived in this way, the decades-long problems, the landscape architecture has been dealing with, clearly show that the main objective of this scientific-professional discipline is to contribute to development of modern planning, design, construction, maintenance, documentation, protection, renovation, revitalization and analyzing 3D structures or units and artifacts.
So, the landscape architecture is not some plants arranging in interiors or exteriors (the so–called greening), although it used to be unsustainably under the guise of horticulture as well as the earlier 2D methods of urban and spatial planning based on 2D quasi-knowledge about the landscape architecture, culture, art and culture-park heritage, and inexplicably accredited programs of sustainable 2D education at the universities in Serbia and its environment.
Also, due to the promotion of 3D or modern integral design created in the end of the 20th and early 21st century, a scientific approach saying that structures and artifacts of the landscape architecture are not the places and space for the so-called greening, but the place where the landscape architecture is to be applied – planning, designing, shaping, construction, forming a scenery, park-urban artifacts, structures, units, forms and ambiences.
The above-written context clearly shows that 3D vision of the landscape architecture initiates, includes and interprets a scientific-expert assessment and analysis, learning, studying, monitoring and synthesizing the aspirations, efforts, achievements and sustainable development of the landscape architecture, culture, art and cultural-park heritage. It is also evident that such 3D vision enables its construction-urban, spatial-landscape, style and artistic, socio-cultural and eco-enlightening sustainability and recognizable traits. Nothing but a 3D vision is able to present a pragmatic implementation of scientific methods meant to carry out a scientific-professional research, synthesizing and presenting the forms of landscape architecture development. Finally, it is the way to establish a culture, urban and architectural dimension in relation to the principles of sustainable eco-reciprocity between high and low built landscape physical structures, as well as aesthetic, decorative, ecological and sustainable environmental habitats and their local and global scenery-landscape values.
Such significance of the landscape architecture indicates its planning, design, construction, eco-urban and architectural role and activity, and in relation to aesthetic, artistic, design, professional, architectural, eco-environmental living aspects it has a continual and traditionally important architectural, integrative, compatible and complementary role in creating, cultivating and articulation a sustainable life quality and quality of local communities development in each urban-environmental residence.
Fundamentals of landscape architecture
Objects, structures and artifacts of the landscape architecture are designed as physical units (3D) that are defined, formed and built by implementing a very important, integrative and compatible organic and inorganic building material. This architectural and design combination of organic and inorganic material in the construction process of building the landscape architecture structures, explicitly indicates an important difference, specific characteristics, scene features, ambiental and complex functional attractiveness of them, especially in comparison to all other oversized high and low built structures in architectural, urban and landscape memory, geography and scenery.
It is obvious that the artifacts of landscape architecture present the work of primordial man who skillfully formed and refined his own residence and habitat throughout architectural-urban history. It is about the creative work of an anonymous author or constructor, about an urban spatial, landscape unit or ambient shaped in artistic, stylish and designed way. Certainly, in indicates indivisibility of relationships between men and built (cultivated or urban) and inherited landscape, and also causal connection between city-construction and landscape architecture as well as design, planning and building high and low built architectural and landscape-architectural, park-urban or garden-park realized projects.
All this clearly indicate that 3D structures and artifacts of landscape architecture continuously take part in planning, designing and sustainable construction, urbanization and development of cities and settlements throughout construction-urban history, and not the 2D so-called green-painted or unpainted surface.